TIME LINE OF PHILIPPINE HISTORY:
● 1380 – Muslim Arabs arrived at the Sulu Archipelago.
● 1521 – Ferdinand Magellan “discovers” the islands and names them: Archipelago of San Lazaro.
● 1542 – Spanish expedition commandeered by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos claims the islands for Spain; names them “Philippines” after Prince Philip, later King Philip II of Spain; the Philippines becomes part of Spanish Empire.
● 1872 – Gomburza (Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jocinto Zamora) were executed by the Spaniards.
● 1892 – Jose Rizal founded the civic organization La Liga Filipina.
● 1896 – Katipuneros tear their cedulas & shout in contempt of the Spaniards in what is called the Cry of Pugadlawin.
● 1897 – General Emilio Aguinaldo establishes the a new republic at Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan.
● 1886 – José Rizal publishes anti-Spanish novel, Noli Me Tangere (The Lost Eden); and seers up independence sentiment.
● 1896 – Spanish execute Rizal for instigating insurrection; public outrage spawns rebellion.
● 1898 – American warship Maine was blown up in Havana harbour, triggers the the Spanish-American war, the battle of Manila Bay ensues.
● 1898 – Emilio Aguinaldo assembled the Malolos Congress in Bulacan, then declares independence in Kawit, Cavite
● 1899 – Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War, cedes Philippines to U.S. after payment to Spain by U.S. of $ 20 million. Emilio Aguinaldo declares independence then leads a guerrilla war against U.S.
● 1901 – U.S. captures Aguinaldo; William Howard Taft arrives as first U.S. governor of Philippines.
● 1902 – Insurrection ends; Taft improves economic conditions, settles disputes over church ownership of land, establishes “Pensionado” program, allowing Filipinos to study in U.S., which helped modernize and westernize the country.
● 1916 – U.S. congress passes the Jones Law establishing elected Filipino legislature with house and senate.
● 1934 – U.S. congress approves the Tydings-McDuffie Law promising Philippine independence by 1946; transition to independence begins.
● 1935 – Filipino people approve constitution creating the Philippine Commonwealth with Manuel Quezon y Molina as president.
● 1941 – Japanese invades the Philippines, and defeats Gen. Douglas MacArthur at Bataan and Corregidor; Quezon establishes government in exile in the U.S.
● 1944 – Quezon dies in exile; Vice President Sergio Osmeña assumes the presidency; MacArthur returns to the Philippines and lands in Leyte with little resistance.
● 1945 – Gen. MacArthur liberates Manila and President Osmeña establishes government.
● 1946 – The U.S. gave the Philippines independence and Manuel Roxas y Acuña is elected as the first president of the new republic.
● 1965 – Ferdinand E. Marcos is elected by a big majority as president.
● 1972 – Martial Law was declared by President Marcos.
● 1981 – Marcos lifts Martial Law.
● 1983 – Opposition leader Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino returns from exile and is assassinated on arrival at Manila International Airport; Aquino’s widow Corazon leads the “People Power” protest movement.
● 1986 – Marcos was declared winner in a presidential election beating Corazon Aquino amid charges of fraud; demonstrations erupt; Marcos flees to Hawaii; Aquino is declared president and forms a new government.
● 1992 – Endorsed by Aquino, her Secretary of Defense Gen. Fidel Ramos wins presidential election. U.S. Philippine congress rejects a new treaty with the U.S. and Subic Bay naval base and Clark Air Field returns to Philippine government, ending American military presence in the Philippines.
● 1996 – The government of Ramos agrees to greater autonomy for southern island of Mindanao. Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) ends the guerrilla war with the government.
● 1997 – Asian financial crisis grips Asia and the Philippines escapes the crisis despite series of currency devaluations.
● 1998 – Former movie actor Joseph Estrada is elected president.
● 2000 – On charges of corruption, the lower house impeach Estrada.
● 2001 – Estrada was forced to step down due to public outrage over corruption allegations. Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo assumes the presidency.
● 2004 – Presidential election takes place. Arroyo’s closest rival (a dear friend of Ex-President Estrada) is film actor Fernando Poe, Jr. Arroyo narrowly defeats Poe, taking 39.5% of the vote to Poe’s 36.6%.
● 2005 – A taped conversation between President Arroyo & an election official surfaced during the 2004 elections implying she influenced the official election results. Calls for her resignation and demonstrations followed soon after. In September 2005, Congress voted down the filing of an impeachment against Arroyo.
● 2007 – Former President Joseph Estrada is convicted of plunder, the first ever in the history of the Philippines.
● 2010 – First automated national elections in the Philippines. Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III and Jejomar “Jojo” Binay was declared President and Vice-President.
PHILIPPINE ENDANGERED SPECIES
A new species of giant lizard has been discovered in the Philippines.
The 2m-long reptile is a monitor lizard, the group to which the world’s longest and largest lizards belong.
The monitor, described as spectacular by the scientists who found it, lives in forests covering the Sierra Madre mountains in the north of the country.
The striking reptile has bright yellow, blue and green skin, and survives on a diet of just fruit, yet until now it has escaped the eyes of biologists.
“It is an incredible animal,” says Dr Rafe Brown, one of the scientists who describe the new lizard in the journal Biology Letters.
In the journal, the researchers describe how rare it is to find such a large terrestrial animal new to science.
The discovery of the lizard, they say, is of a similar importance to two other large species of so-called “mega-fauna” discovered in recent years: the kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji), a new genus of monkey found in Africa, and the saola, a Vietnamese forest bovid (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis).
The giant lizard is actually well known to resident Agta and Ilongot tribespeople living in the forests of northern Luzon Island.
The tribespeople regularly hunt the lizard for its meat, a vital source of protein.
Yet scientists were unaware of its existence.
That was until Dr Brown and an international team of colleagues from the US, Philippines and The Netherlands surveyed a series of lizard specimens preserved in museums both within the US and Philippines.
Within these specimens they identified the new species on the basis of its body size, scales, colouration and DNA.
With a main body length approaching 1m, with an additional 1m-long tail, the lizard has dark skin covered by golden yellow spots and flecks.
Its legs are mainly yellow, and its tail striped black and yellow.
In some pictures, the animal also looks to have green or blue scales.
The new species, which is called Varanus bitatawa, is thought to survive on a diet of fruit, making it one of just three species of fruit-eating monitor lizards in the world.
Monitor lizards include the world’s most massive lizard, the Komodo dragon (V. komodoensis), which can reach up to 3m-long and weigh up to 90kg.
While not as massive, other species of monitor, such as the Crocodile monitor or Salvadori’s monitor (Varanus salvadorii) of New Guinea, can also reach similar lengths.
Why the new massive lizard has remained undiscovered by scientists until now is a mystery, especially as many biologists work in the northern Philippines.
The researchers say it may be because the lizard is naturally reclusive, being a highly secretive animal that never leaves the forest or crosses open country.
It could also be because few scientific expeditions have characterised the reptiles living in the Sierra Madre forests.
The new species of monitor lives at least 150km away from its nearest relative, another lizard called V. olivaceus, which also lives in trees and eats fruit.
THE ORIGINAL FILIPINO ALIBATA WRITING SYSTEM
Filipino Nationalism nowadays are booming. In our arts and designs, products and services we all are proud bearer of the race that sparks the first-ever nationalistic movement in Asia. From the freedom-fighting revolutionaries during the Spanish times, our heroic defence of the entire Pacific Regions repulsing the advance of the Japanese invaders, therefore giving ample time for the Allies to regroup. We Filipinos have been honored as the first democratic country to succeed in the first-ever bloodless revolution by virtue of the People’s Power.
One thing that awakens our patriotic movements is when someone told us how lucky we are to be a Filipinos. In this video we will learn the basics of Alibata, termed coined by Paul Verzosa in the early 1900’s.
Baybayin fonts was created by Paul Marrow. This videos are taken and uploaded to youtube by the author of baybayin.com, kudos to you Mr. Christian Cabuay. It is an honor for me to know that someone helps resurrects our roots and pride as a Filipino.
For more info just visit: http://www.baybayin.com/about/
HOW TO IDENTIFY A FILIPINO CITIZEN?
A. Constitutional basis
According to Article 4 of the 1987 Constitution:
The following are citizens of the Philippines:
1.Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this constitution.
2.Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines;
3.Those born before January, 1973, of Filipino mothers, elect Philippine citizenships upon reaching the age of majority; and
4.Those who are naturalized in accordance with Law.
Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), SEC. 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens.
Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.
Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by their act or omission they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it.
Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law.
B. Through Characters
The Filipino character is actually a little bit of all the cultures put together.
1. The bayanihan or spirit of kinship and camaraderie that Filipinos are famous for, is said to be taken from Malay forefathers.
2. The close family relations are said to have been inherited from the Chinese.
3. The piousness comes from the Spaniards who introduced Christianity in the 16th century.
4. Hospitality is a common denominator in the Filipino character and this is what distinguishes the Filipino.
ONE OF THE HAPPIEST PERSON ON EARTH
Filipinos are one of the most cheerful people in the world.
There are things in life that money could not buy, one of which is happiness. No amount of money can buy peace and happiness. True peace and true happiness that is.
According to the 2009 Happy Planet Index (HPI) published by the New Economics Foundation, the Philippines is the 14th happiest place in the world, up 3 places from last year’s 17th place ranking.
The HPI index measures happiness combining life satisfaction, life expectancy and environmental footprint — the amount of land required to sustain the population and absorb its energy consumption.
Costa Rica is the happiest place in the world, followed by Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Guatemala, Vietnam, Colombia, Cuba, El Salvador, Brazil and Honduras.
Completing the top 25 are:
Malaysia is in 33rd place. Thailand (41). Singapore (49). Korea (68). Japan (75). Hongkong (84).
Andrew Simms, NEF’s policy director, said the index “addresses the relative success or failure of countries in giving their citizens a good life while respecting the environmental resource limits on which all our lives depend.”
Nic Marks, the head of NEF’s center for wellbeing, added: “It is clear that no single nation listed in the Happy Planet Index has got everything right.
“But the index does reveal patterns that show how we might better achieve long and happy lives for all, whilst living within our environmental means,” he said, according to British daily The Guardian. “The challenge is: can we learn the lessons and apply them?”
View the complete list of happiest people at Happy Planet Index.